Command line


The most of the commands below are also valid for Windows 10, since Microsoft invented Ubuntu and bash in 2016.

Mounting CD images on Linux

mount /path/to/cdimage.iso /mnt/cdmount -o loop,ro

Mounting .bin / .cue files on Linux
Is not possible, but the .bin and .cue can be converted to .iso as follows using ‘bchunk’ (Binchunker):

sudo apt-get install bchunk
bchunk cdimage.bin cdimage.cue output

Compare the Contents of Two Folders with the Diff Command

Can I make rsync output only the summary?
summary only in output

Print Column – Change Field Separator – Linux Bash
Remove line break

grep getting confused by filenames with dashes

HEX dump a file

Exclude directory using tar

Moving and renaming files

Rename files, replace spaces with underscore

for file in *.doc *.mp3 *.wav *.txt
  mv -- "$file" "${file// /_}"

More mass-renaming of files
If you, for example use some program to split a PDF document into single-page files, and that program does not name the files as you want, as in resultig files named as: p_Part_1.pdf, p_Part_2.pdf … p_Part_10.pdf, p_Part_11.pdf … p_Part_100.pdf, p_Part_101.pdf …
The PDFill PDF Editor (tools) does stupid naming like this (you have to supply at least one letter for the file names, and “_Part_” is appended).
Correct naming could be possible by using ‘convert’ from the imagemagick package, but when I tried, the PDFs got large and/or in low quality (converted to images and then back to PDF).

for file in *.pdf; do mv -- "$file" "${file//p_Part_/}"; done
for file in ?.pdf; do mv -- $file 00$file; done
for file in ??.pdf; do mv -- $file 0$file; done

The following search and replace is related to above, but can be used for other purposes:

Search and replace filenames in a text
Add leading zeroes to short numerical filenames (1.pdf = 001.pdf, 10.pdf = 010.pdf)

sed -E 's%/([0-9][0-9]).pdf%/0\1.pdf%' source.1  >source.2
sed -E 's%/([0-9]).pdf%/00\1.pdf%' source.2  >source.1

Another multi-step renaming I did
This time, I renamed the output files from Wondershare Video Converter, in this specific case the DVDs from “The Amiga Years”.
The converted files were in this case named lika:


I also made converted files with the subtitles, and these were named as usual with windows, appending ” (2)” at the end of the filename:
THE_AMIGA_YEARS_D1_Title_03_10 (2).mp4

First step: decide on how you want the files named
I want my file names short, keeping the disc, track and chapter numbers, later appending (manually) the title of the track, so in case for DVD1:
D1.03_02 (sub).mp4

When manually adding titles, I will append ” – title”:
D1.03.02 – David Pleasance – Releasing The Amiga CD32 (sub).mp4*
D1.03.02 – David Pleasance – Releasing The Amiga CD32.mp4*

The renaming process:
Be careful when working on your files. Always use a simple echoing command first to determine what will be done.
The common part of the file names for DVD1 is “THE_AMIGA_YEARS_D1_Title_”, and according to my naming goals, that part should be replaced by “D1.”:

for file in THE_AMIGA_YEARS_D1_Title_*.mp4; do echo -- "$file" "${file//THE_AMIGA_YEARS_D1_Title_/D1.}"; done

This will shorten the file names to:
D1.03_10 (2).mp4

This next renaming step will replace “(2)” with “(sub)”:

for file in D1.*\(2\).mp4; do mv -- "$file" "${file//(2)/(sub)}"; done

The last step will replace the underscore ‘_’ with ‘.’:

for file in D1.03_*.mp4; do mv -- "$file" "${file//_/.}"; done

Move finished downloads out of the downloads folder
Automatically move finished downloads of specific size (larger than) or any other criteria out to a mounted network drive with more space:

(windows steps)
Mount the share as usual and take note of the drive letter (in the example “S”)

(windows-Ubuntu shell steps)

mkdir /mnt/s
mount -t drvfs S: /mnt/s

The script (edit as suitable) to move the files out of downloads (my script is in the downloads drawer, which is also the cwd):

cd /mnt/c/Users/user-name/Downloads

Find any zip-files, larger than about 20MB, not altered in 30 minutes

find . -type f -mmin +30 -name "*\.zip" -size +20000000c -exec mv {} /mnt/s/downloads/ \;

Run this whenever you want to move files, or automate it as follows:

while true; do date;./; sleep 300; done

(Scan for new files to move every 5 minutes)

Finding files

Find directories containing matching files

find . -iname "*.pdf" -exec dirname {} \; | sort | uniq

Find the latest modified file(s) in a directory

To print the last 3 accessed files (sorted from the last accessed file to the third last accessed file):

find . -type f -exec stat -c '%X %n' {} \; | sort -nr | awk 'NR==1,NR==3 {print $2}'

To print the last 3 modified files (sorted from the last modified file to the third last modified file):

find . -type f -exec stat -c '%Y %n' {} \; | sort -nr | awk 'NR==1,NR==3 {print $2}'

Find files NOT matching search pattern
Simple.. use -not with the ‘find’ command:

find . -type f -not -name *html

Remove Apache-generated indexes after wget -m

find . -type f -name "index.html\?C=?;O=?" -exec rm {} \;

Finding IN files

Use ‘grep’
Finding files which does not match search pattern (use ‘grep -L’, as inverse for ‘grep -l’)


Periodic – using it to run shell scripts

4.5. Using the Ports Collection

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