Simple four-way kickstart switch with M27C160

This post has been cloned from
Originally written 15 Dec 2017
Some links and inline-notes, both displayed in red, has been added to this guide after cloning.

Amiga (various models) Kickstart switcher

The Amiga has had multiple firmware versions over the years, known as “Kickstart”. Unfortunately a lot of software that hits the hardware directly is affected by which version of Kickstart you’re using, leading to various hardware and software solutions.

The software ones (for example Relokick) do work, but if you have enough boot time toggles it can start getting unwieldy managing which things are resetting and why – for example booting into 68000 mode on your accelerator card, then booting Relokick to drop to Kickstart 1.3 which involves another reset. Hardware options are definitely the way to go.

There are some quite complex ones which allow you to switch on reset with keyboard strokes, but I found one main problem with these – they’re always out of stock. Additionally they only allow you to switch between two ROMs and have quite large physical footprints because for some reason people are really “purist” over Kickstart ROMs, copyright and so on meaning multiple chips or insane solutions like having to download original chips into onboard flash.

As many reading will know, I’m a member of The Dumping Union, so I don’t much care. So I made a small quad switcher board which anyone can make without having to worry about stock availability. It won’t work in all machines, if yours can cope with single 20 pin chips then you’ll be fine. This is revision 1.1, the 1.0 included a mistake which affected the logical workings of the jumpers.

So what we have is a 27C160 (16mbit) chip split into four areas by the jumpers toggling high address lines on the chip, presented to the motherboard as a standard 27C400. If you want to make life easier when you’re building this, solder the middle pin strip first, then the resistors, socket, other strip and header in that order. It should look a bit like this:

And it installs like this (photo taken in Rev 6 A2000):

As with my drive switcher project, I suggest you get the boards made by OHS Park, here’s a handy ordering link:
Order from OSH Park

However if you want to manufacture them yourself or make changes, here’s the Eagle CAD file:

Parts list:

1x 27C160 EEPROM
2x 20 way male pin strip, turned pin type
2x 4.7k ohm resistor 1/2 watt
1x 4 pin right angle pin header
1x 42 pin DIL socket
2x jumpers, switches, or 2P4T rotary switch (examples)

To make the image for this chip just get your four chosen ROM images, double the size of any 2mbit (256k) images and copy the lower half into the upper half, and then compile them into a single 16mbit image. There are loads of ways of doing this, I just used a Linux command line:

$ cat KICK13.ROM > quadbios.bin
$ cat kickstart2_04.rom >> quadbios.bin
$ cat Kickstart3.1.rom >> quadbios.bin
$ cat DiagROM >> quadbios.bin

As you can see I chose 1.3, 2.0, 3.1 and the awesome Amiga Diagnostic ROM (, once you have that image you will need to byte swap it if you’re using images used by emulators, but not if you’re using genuine chip dumps. As a sanity check when you load the file into your programmer software to burn the 27C160, look at the buffer – if you see readable headers instead of slightly scrambled ones, you’ll need to byte swap it. In fact it’s probably best to check the individual ROMs you plan to use before joining them together, that will work just as well.

As for how to actually use it – well that’s up to you. If you ground the second pin of J1 or J2 you’ll change which segment of the 27C160 is being accessed according to this table:

J1  J2
ON  ON  = ROM 1

If you do this while the machine is running it will tend to crash horribly – but switching it during a reset seems to work, or by turning it off first. You could attach 2 toggle switches to it, or do as I have and wire up a 2 pole 4 throw switch – if wired correctly this will let you choose any of the 4 possible combinations. I used one of these:

So if you look at the above pinout, I connected J1-1 to A, J1-2 to 1 & 3, J2-1 to B, and J2-2 to 5 & 6.

You may not make these to sell unless you are charging a minimal amount for assembly and parts. Everything else is fine.

Amiga Forever by Cloanto

The purpose of this article is to document some parts of the pre-configured Amiga systems in Amiga Forever. Probably the most of the details given here can also be found in the documentation at

Default folder and file locations

Kickstart and other ROMs:
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Amiga Files\Shared\rom

“Built-in Boot” when set to any of the floppy disk images:
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Amiga Files\Shared\adf

“Built-in Boot” when set to any of the hard disk images:
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Amiga Files\Shared\hdf

“Built-in Shared” when set to “Local folder”:
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Amiga Files\Shared\Workbench

When listed as “Shared\dir\something”:
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Amiga Files\Shared\dir

Pre-configured Amiga systems

Amiga 1000

Model: Amiga 1000
ROM: Amiga 1.1 (NTSC)
CPU: 68000
RAM: 256k CHIP
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 1.0 (floppy disk image)

Amiga 2000

Model: Amiga 2000
ROM: Amiga 1.3
CPU: 68000
RAM: 512k CHIP + 512k SLOW
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 1.34 (floppy disk image)

Amiga 500

Model: Amiga 500
ROM: Amiga 1.2
CPU: 68000
RAM: 512k CHIP
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 1.34 (floppy disk image)

Amiga 3000

Model: Amiga 3000
ROM: Amiga 3.1
CPU: 68030, 68882
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 3.11 (hard disk image)

Amiga 500 Plus

Model: Amiga 500 Plus
ROM: Amiga 2.04
CPU: 68000
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 2.04 (floppy disk image)


Model: CDTV
ROM: Amiga 1.3
CPU: 68000
Media: None

Amiga 1200

Model: Amiga 1200
ROM: Amiga 3.1
CPU: 68EC020
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 3.1 (floppy disk image)

Amiga 4000

Model: Amiga 4000
ROM: Amiga 3.1
CPU: 68040
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 3.11 (hard disk image)

Amiga 600

Model: Amiga 600
ROM: Amiga 2.05
CPU: 68000
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 2.04 (Floppy disk image)

Amiga CD32

Model: CD32
ROM: Amiga 3.1
CPU: 68EC020
Media: None

Walker Prototype

Model: Walker
ROM: Amiga 3.2 (beta)
CPU: 68030, 68882
Media: Shared\dir: Walker-System
Media: Shared\dir: Walker-Work

Amiga 4000 PPC

Model: Amiga 4000
ROM: Amiga 3.1
CPU: 68040
RAM: 2MB CHIP + 256MB Z3 + 128MB PPC
PPC: CyberStorm (exclusive mode)
SCSI: CyberStorm PPC
Video: RTG (Picasso IV)
Media: Built-in Shared: Local folder
Media: Deploy a-750mb.hdf

Workbench 1.3

Model: Amiga 2000
ROM: Amiga 1.3
CPU: 68000
RAM: 512k CHIP + 2MB FAST + 512k SLOW
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 1.35 (hard disk image)
Media: Built-in Shared: Local folder

Workbench 3.x

Model: Amiga 4XXX
ROM: Amiga 3.X
CPU: 68020, 68882
Video: RTG (synthetic), 16MB
Media: Built-in Boot: Workbench 3.X (shared directory)
Media: Built-in Shared: Local folder
Media: Shared\dir: Work


Model: Amiga 4XXX
ROM: Amiga 3.X
CPU: 68020, 68882
Video: RTG (synthetic), 16MB
Media: Shared\hdf AmigaSYS4.hdf
Media: Shared\dir AmigaSYS4-Work
Media: Shared\dir


Model: AROS
ROM: AROS Latest
CPU: 68020, 68882
Video: RTG (synthetic), 16MB
Media: Shared\dir AROS

Some resources:

ROM and Operating System Files in Amiga Forever
Classic Support Media
Amiga Forever 3.X ROM Improvements
Amiga Forever Workbench 3.1 Improvements
Amiga Forever Workbench 3.1 Duplication Instructions
Amiga Model-Specific ROM Differences

Burning Kickstart ROMs for the Amiga

(cloned from
Links and inline-notes, both displayed in red, has been added to this guide after cloning.
See also:
Burn Damn ROM Burn

Burning your own Amiga ROMs (EPROMs)

01/26/2019 | Amiga | Amiga ROM AmigaOS

With the release of the latest AmigaOS version (3.1.4) the package you could buy included ROM images to be used for either maprom (depending on your accelerator card tool support) or for burning it to a ROM.

Maprom is probably preferred, because it’s more flexible, but not always possible. For instance the A3440 card can’t do maprom. Or if you have no accelerator at all you can’t do maprom either.

Which leaves only a few options. Either you can buy the ROM, have someone burn it or burn it yourself.

Here I want to show how it works to burn it yourself.

What you need:

– an EPROM programmer. I have chosen the low cost GQ-4×4 USB programmer.

– to program the EPROMs used in an Amiga you have to get a 16-Bit 40/42 pin ZIF adapter board for the burner:
ADP-054 16 Bit EPROM 40/42 pin ZIF adapter

– an UV eraser, which can erase the EPROMs, in case something goes wrong.

– then you need EPROMs. The types used in A500/A600/A2000 are 27C400. I found the following to work which can be ordered in eBay: AMD27C400

– for burning ROMs for A1200/A4000 you need 27C800 / AMD27C800 roms, two of them to burn one ROM.

– and certainly a ROM image you want to burn.

Sometimes there are good offers at Amazon or eBay for a complete package (except the EPROMs).
You shouldn’t pay more than €150 for the GQ-4×4, the adapter board and the eraser.

Here is a picture of the device with attached adapter board with an EPROM inside.
GQ programmer with adapter board and EPROM

Then you need to download the software for the burner. That is a) the burner software itself named “GQUSBprg”. The latest version as of this writing is 7.21.
And you need the USB driver 3.0.

Can be downloaded here:

When you connected the burner and installed the software we can start.
Now open the burner software. Make sure that there is no EPROM put in.

1. first step is to select the device, or the EPROM to burn.

Make sure you choose either AM27C400 or 27C400.

2. Next we’ll make a voltage check to see if the burner has all voltages in order to properly burn the EPROM.

I found that while you can attached a power supply on the burner it is not required. The USB provides enough power.

3. Load the ROM image into the buffer.

When you load the image make sure you choose .bin (binary).

!!! This is important, or otherwise the programmed ROM won’t work.
After you loaded the ROM image, you have to make sure to swap bytes.
This can be done in the ‘Command’ menu of the software.
Check first by selecting the “Buffer” tab. If you find some readable text in the beginning of the buffer, you need to byteswap it.

4. Now you have to put in your EPROM into the ZIF slot.

Make sure it sits tight and doesn’t move anymore.

5. Make a blank check to see if the EPROM is empty.

6. When the EPROM is blank we can write it.

When the write process is finished it’s done.

You can take out the EPROM and put it into the Amiga and it should work.

Some notes:
Partly this whole process of writing the ROM was a real pain because the GQ burner would just stop writing at some address. And in fact I had to get the package replaced including the adapter board.

I had first tried it in a virtual machine (VMware Fusion on Mac) but this doesn’t work for some reason as the GQ programmer detaches and re-attaches to the USB bus on some of the operations and that doesn’t seem to be working reliably in a VM.

Commenting on my own post:

The Amiga 4000 can only use 512k EPROMs, hence only 27C400 will work.
The Amiga 1200 can also use 27C800 (1MB).

The byte-swap, if your ROM image is already byte-swapped, then you don’t need to do this here.
Some ROM images, which are ready to burn have this already.
However, if you want to burn ROM images that are used in maprom or UAE, then you have to byte-swap.

07/15/2019 | Manfred |


Making a custom kickstart 3.9 ROM
Guide: Create and Burn a custom Kickstart 3.9
AmigaOS 3.9 Kickstart and Patches Guide
Classic Amiga Wiki – Kickstart 3.9
Help making Custom Kickstart rom
EEPROM on A1200?
Making a custom kickstart 3.1.4 ROM
Remus and ROMsplit to create your own 3.1.4 KS

Willem EPROM programmer
GQ-4X User’s Manual
Software and USB-driver download
27C400 EPROMs (for A500/A600/A2000 and A4000 ?)
27C800 EPROMs (for A1200 only ?)

Partitioning 16 GB Compact Flash card with WinUAE and PFS3

Cloned from:
See also: How to Setup an Amiga Compact Flash Drive using WinUAE []

This article was cloned for archival purposes from the now defunct site The directions worked up to recently when WinUAE 4.x was released. Read through the helpful comments at the end on how to make this work for version 4.

Index, or quick links to the sections

Use these quick links if you know how to do some of the steps.

Partitioning 16 GB Compact Flash card with WinUAE and PFS3

(cloned content starts here)
Lately I’ve noticed a lot of questions on how to partition and prepare Compact Flash card (or HDD) for use with Amiga, so I’ve decided to write this tutorial on how to do it and format them as PFS3 partitions.

At least this is how I do it :). Using PC with WinUAE to prepare everything and just pop finished card in Amiga, ready to go.

Preparing Compact Flash card

Regardless if you’re going to do it with real Amiga or with WinUAE, first step is to prepare CF card. For Amiga to be able to use it we need to “clean” any file and partition structures that are present on the card. Luckily, there’s a tool included with windows to do just that, it’s called “diskpart”.

First thing first, connect your CF card to PC, it doesn’t matter how you do it. Integrated card reader, USB card reader, whatever you usually use.

Now we need to start Command Prompt with elevated permissions, aka “as Administrator”. If you have Windows 7 and UAC turned off applications start “as Administrator” by default, but I guess most people use default settings. Anyway, press Start key on keyboard (or click Start icon on taskbar), type “cmd” (without quotes of course, every command I have written with quotes is supposed to go without them, unless explicitly state otherwise). It should find either Command Prompt or cmd.exe, in my case (Windows 10) it was Command Prompt, but if I remember correctly on Windows 7 it says only cmd.exe. Regardless, right click it and choose “Run as administrator”.

Now type “diskpart” and press enter key

This will load diskpart. Now lets see what drives we have available, type “list disk” and press enter, this will list all disk drives that are present in your computer. Find the one representing your CF card. In my case it was 16 GB CF card so it’s the last one, where is says 14 GB. Note that it’s “Disk 5”.

To select it type “select disk #” where # is number your CF/HDD got, followed by enter of course. In my case it was “select disk 5”

You should get message that Disk # is now the selected disk. To make sure type “detail disk” and press enter

It will output details of currently selected disk. Double check you’ve selected the correct one. If you clean wrong disk it’s bye, bye data. After you’re sure you’re sure 🙂 type “clean” and press enter. You should get a message saying it’s been successfully cleaned. If there was some kind of error make sure you’ve started Command Prompt as administrator.

And that’s it for preparing your CF/HDD. You can check with “detail disk” and/or “list disk” (selected disk will get * sign in front of it) commands to see if it’s been cleaned.

Tools and preparation

To make it a bit easier I’ve prepared small pack of tools and file systems. Simply unzip them in folder and assign the folder as hard drive in WinUAE, we’ll get into more details a bit later. Inside the archive is

Diskmaster – Norton Commnder like file manager
loadmodule – command line tool, used for loading modules, we use it to load updated scsi.device that enables large hdd usage
Reboot – command line soft reset tool
CLI – Shell
scsi.device – doobrey’s pacthed scsi.device v44.20, I use it without problems with all my A600/A1200
FS folder – I’ve included few filesystems in this folder, few versions of FFS and latest (at the moment v18.5) PFS3 AIO, you can get newest version from aminet
scsi folder – Here I’ve included two scsi.device files I used so far. scsi.device.44.20 is the same one as above, scsi.device.43.45 is patched version of scsi.device 43.43 from WB3.9 BB2 update, reason I included it was because I had problems with 44.20 when used on regular A500 with KS3.1, for some reason it was crashing when it tried to load it, but this version, 43.45, worked fine. I guess it might be something to do with 68000 CPU, when I connected ACA500 with ACA1220 (68020 CPU) to this same A500 it worked fine with v44.20. So just in case, here are both versions.
Dropbox download (from article author)
Alternative download location (shared from my online storage)

WinUAE settings

We’re almost ready for actual work, almost :). First, run WinUAE as administrator, same as with command prompt. Find it’s shortcut (or WinUAE.exe), right click it and choose “Run as administrator”. This will allow WinUAE to access CF card, otherwise OS will block direct access to it.

To make it a bit faster I set WinUAE to emulate a bit beefier then standard Amiga. These are setting that I use for prepping CF cards, WB installations, file copying and so on. I saved it as config so I don’t have to set it up every time.

For ROM settings use Kickstart 3.0 or 3.1, whatever you usually use, for floppy settings mount either Workbench or WorkBench Install floppy (again, either 3.0 or 3.1, whatever you usually use) and set it to turbo speed (slider to maximum left), to speed up WorkBench load.

If you use Workbench floppy instead of Workbench install floppy you’ll get one warning from HDToolBox later on, nothing important, we’ll get to that later, doesn’t really matter.

Now go to HDD settings (CD & Hard drives) and click “Add Directory or Archive…” button

Browse to the folder you unpacked archive from previous chapter. For “Device name” and “Volume label” enter whatever you like. I simply enter “f” in those fields and I’ll use “f” throughout this tutorial. No special reason, that simply means that within workbench you’ll be able to find those files in drive “f”.

Now we need to add CF card to our virtual Amiga. Click “Add Hard Drive…” button, in new window click on the drop down menu and choose your drive.

Also, from drop down menu that says “UAE” choose “A600/A1200/A4000” and click “Add hard drive” button.

Finally, all preparation is done. All that’s left is to click “Start” button and load Workbench. You haven’t forgot to assign WB3.x floppy to floppy drive, have you?

Preparing the card

After it finishes loading you should get something like this

First thing we need to do is load patched scsi.device, original one is limited to 4GB and since our card is 16 GB we need to do something about it. If you’ll use 4 GB card you can skip this scsi.device thing, or if you use direct scsi enabled filesystem you can use up to 8 GB HDDs, like PFS3DS, but I prefer to use scsi.device approach even with 8 GB cards.

To load it we need to get to Shell. Since there’s no Shell on Workbench Install floppy I’ve included it in tools archive. Open drive “f” and you’ll find Shell there

Alternatively, if you used Workbench floppy to boot you can also find Shell in Workbench floppy, System drawer.

Switch to drive “f” by typing “f:”, followed by enter key, and finally type “loadmodule scsi.device” and press enter. This will load new scsi.device to memory and reboot our virtual Amiga. After it boots again, we can go back to shell and type “version scsi.device”, output should say version 44.20.

If you reboot from WinUAE (F12 and then “Reset” button) or stop/start emulation again, you’ll have to repeat this “loadmodule scsi.device” procedure, loadmodule survives only soft reset (ctrl + amiga + amiga, or reboot from command line, remember that Reboot file from zip archive?).

Now that we’ve loaded patched/updated scsi.device we can proceed. Open F drive, HDToolBox drawer and finally run HDToolBox.

HDToolBox should load and show one unknown drive. So let’s introduce them, click “Change Drive Type” button.

Click “Define New…”

And Finally “Read Configuration”, to get drive geometry information.

You’ll get one info dialog so just click Continue and you’ll get correct geometry values. Don’t mind Size negative size. That’s only visual, HDToolBox wasn’t meant for drives so big so they never bothered to use big variables, this is simple programming variable overflow, drive will be formatted correctly.

If you want to precisely set partition sizes you can use calculator I made, at bottom left there’s link to PDF on how to use it. You just need Cylinders, Heads and Block per Track values from this HDToolBox window.

Now just click “Ok” on this and next window.

If you used Workbench floppy to boot you’ll probably get warning complaining how it can’t find L:FastFileSystem, just click continue. Reason for this is that Workbench floppy doesn’t have FFS driver on it. It’s on Install floppy, where HDToolBox usually is so it can find it automatically. If you used Workbench install floppy to boot you’ll simply be back to starting HDToolBox window.

Now that we’re back at starting window, you’ll notice that all buttons have unlocked and that drive is no longer “unknown”. Click “Partition Drive” button

Add checkmark on “Advanced Options” checkbox

Edit “Partition Device Name” from UDH0 to DH0 (I guess it doesn’t matter, but traditionally HDD partitions are named DH0, DH1 and so on), and click on “Add/Update…” button.

Again, if you used Workbench floppy to boot, you wont’ have anything in the list. If you used Workbench install floppy you’ll have Fast File System loaded. If you don’t intend to use it, simply select it and click “Delete File System” button.

To add new file system click on “Add New File System…” button

And type path to file containing desired file system. In that zip file from beginning I’ve put them in FS folder and file name is pfs3_aio-handler, so in this case I typed “f:fs/pfs3_aio-handler”, and click “Ok” button.

Now we need to enter DosType for PFS3, for PFS3 it’s


For PFS3DS aka PDS3 DosType would be 0x50445303 (pfs3_aio-handler supports PDS3, you just need to type this instead of PFS3 one, everything else is the same) and FFS would use 0x444F5301, just for info.

You can leave “Version” and “Revision” fields at default values, sometimes I edit “Revision” to 5 since this is PFS3 v18.5 but it’s not like it really matters. Again, click “Ok” button.

Now we have PFS3 loaded. We can load more filesystems, I’ve included few FFS versions in FS folder. When I started with Amigas few years ago I usually used FFS for DH0 and PFS3 for DH1, but actually there’s not much point to it, PFS3 is better (more modern) than FFS, and OS had to load two drivers so that resulted in a bit more memory used.

Now to set the partition up. I’ve resized it to 500 MB. You can do this via partition slider, which is unprecise, or by directly entering Start Cyl and End Cyl values. Which is what I did. To get those values you can use calculator I mentioned earlier. Finally, click on “Change…” button.

First click on “File System:” block thingy until it says “PFS\03” and then edit MaxTransfer value to 0x1fe00 (these are zeroes, not “O”s) AND PRESS ENTER TO CONFIRM THE VALUE. This is a “feature” on this window, if you enter the value and click “Ok” it will not apply but revert to original value. You have to press enter and then click “Ok” button.

Now set second partition to size you want. I usually use all of the rest of space for it, you can simply stretch it, no need to be precise for that. And repeat last step on it (Change…, File System, MaxTransfer). After you’re done with both (or more) partitions click “Ok” button to return to main HDToolBox window. All that’s left is to click “Save Changes to Drive” button. Only visible difference will be drive status, it will change from “Changed” to “Not Changed”.

Exit HDToolBox and reboot. In some rare occasions new partitions appeared immediately after I saved changes in HDToolBox, but in 90% of cases they didn’t. After reboot they appeared.

Easiest way is to double click Reboot icon that should be in “F” folder so do it. Or open shell again, go to drive “F” and type “reboot” followed by enter. But double clicking Reboot icon is faster/easier.

If you reboot from WinUAE control panel, you’ll have to do that “loadmodule scsi.device” thingy again. Alternative is to reboot via keyboard shortcut (Ctrl + Amiga + Amiga).

After reboot you may have to wait few seconds (3-5) for partitions to appear. But they should appear.

Select first one (DH0), press right mouse button and go to toolbar at the top, choose “Icons” and “Format Disk…”

Enter name you want your drive to have, like System, Main, Workbench… whatever, uncheck “Put Trashcan” checkbox if you want (I uncheck it) and click on “Quick Format” button. This is a must when using flash media like CF cards.

You’ll get two warnings asking you if you’re sure you want to format it, click “Format” button on both dialogs.

Lastly you’ll get one more dialog, simply informing you about some PFS3 info, click “Ok” and wait a bit for format to complete.

Repeat for second (and all consecutive ones if you made them) partition, this one might take 30-60 seconds to complete as it’s quite a bit larger. After it’s done you’ll have two partitions, 500 MB and 14+ GB formatted as PFS3.

Now you can install Workbench on it. But remember, if you make hard reset you’ll have to manually load patched scsi.device again, BEFORE you make any change to filesystem. Usually first partition will be accessible since it’s 500 MB, but DH1 will be NDOS again until you load scsi.device.

If you install Classic Workbench you can simply copy this scsi.device to DH0:DEVS folder, it will load it automatically on boot. If you install “plain” Workbench you’ll have to manually add it to startup-sequence. Tutorial on how to do this is here.

Just be sure to use same scsi.device you used to when partitioning the drive. There are more than one, others might work, but they may also result in corrupted data.

PC games


Humble Bundle
Abandonware DOS


SPORE™ Collection on GoG
Google Search (videos) “Spore GDC 2005”

Spore 35min Demonstration from the GDCe (2005)

The making of spore (FULL)

Will Wright: Spore, birth of a game (TED Talk)

Will Wright and Spore

G4TV’s Icons – Will Wright

Cannon Fodder

(some free levels + uses data from full Amiga/PC versions)


Available from Steam and Humble Bundle


X-Plane 11

Captain Joe

Fly with Captain Joe

Amiga hardware

Google search

Google search for 'kickstart+switch+27c160' (multiple kickstarts on the same EPROM)
Google search for 'multiple+amiga+kickstarts+on+eprom'

Amiga Info


Amiga hardware database, digitizers

New PCBs for Amiga models

Complete PCB Set for the Amiga 4000T

Amiga 4000T
A4000T PCB Info page

Mikes Retro Tech: shows new main board for the Amiga 2000

Amiga 500++, RetroManCave

John Hertell (Chucky)’s ReAmiga 3000

AA3000+ Amiga 3000 with AGA

Repair and hacks

Amiga PCB Explorer
Amiga 500 Keyboard Schematic
Amiga Schematics and Manuals
Amiga PSU guide and more
Amiga 500 PS/2 controller for external keyboard
1MB Chipminne i A500 (sv/en)

Hard drive controllers

Amiga GrandSlam SCSI controller (and related)
(IVS_SCSIpro.device or IVS_SCSI.device)

Trumpcard 500 AT

Trifecta 500 LX (SCSI + IDE combo)

Oktagon 2008

Memory expansion boards

Microbotics M-502 for Amiga 500 (512k SLOW or CHIP after mod) and Amiga 500+ (1MB CHIP)
This expansion uses the same RAM-chips as the later Amiga 500 models (rev. 6 and up) and harddrive controllers like the A2091 and A590: HM514256AP-10 (DIP-20 256kx4, 4 chips per 512k)
At the time of purchase I found these chips on utsource: HM514256AP-10

SupraRAM 500 RX as well as Trifecta 500LX and Oktagon 2008 above and Amiga 3000 uses TC514400Z-80 (ZIP-20 1Mx4, 4 chips per 2MB)
At the time of purchase I found these chips on eBay: 1PCS TC514400Z-80 ZIP-20 TOSHIBA 1,048,576 x 4 BIT DYNAMIC RAM

Golden Image RC-2000 with absolutely no identification text on the card uses 1Mx1 DIP-18 (16 needed per 2MB).
At the time of purchase I found these chips at Elgood OY / Partco in Finland: TARIC 81C1000-70

Testing the installed memory

There are some generic software based memory testers around for the Amiga. Just to name a few we have Amiga Test Kit and my own software (which runs from Workbench and an alternate version which runs from CLI: MemoryTest (Aminet: util/misc/MemoryTest.

Usually the memory expansion boards have a “test” jumper which disables autoconfig of RAM and allows that to be tested with the expansion specific tester included on the installation disk. These bootable disks are available at least for Supra 500RX, Oktagon and A590. Oktagon tests the RAM in 4MB chunks, so it will first say “4MB gefunden”, then “2MB gefunden” when it is done testing 4MB out of 6MB installed on the board.

CF card as replacement for hard drive

Preparing a CF-card using UAE for use on a real Amiga
Preparing a CF-card using UAE for use on a real Amiga
Creating an Amiga partition with the PFS3(AIO) file system

A500 replacement power supply

Amiga PSU guide and more
Commodore Amiga 500 full replacement Power Supply (DIY)
Power supply used above (discontinued):
Mean Well T40-B
Suitable power supplies for modification as above:
Mean Well RT-65B (5-8A on +5V)
Less suitable, won’t fit in the original plastic case:
RT-85B (8-10A on +5V)
Less suitable (needs constant load of 0.1A on -12v line, as the T40-B used in the modification)
Mean Well RT-50B (4-5A on +5V) || RPT-60B (4-4.4A on +5V) || RPT-75B (6-8A on +5V)

Using an ATX power supply with the Amiga

How to make an ATX Adapter for Amiga 500/600/1200 and Amiga 4000


Wico Command Control repair
Wico Retro gaming joysticks – Disassembly and Repair

Modern hardware for the Amiga

Amiga 34 report


TFxxx – Terrible Fire Hardware developed by Stephen Leary
TerribleFire GIT repository

For CD32
CD32 TF328 plus IDE cable and CF adapter With Riser [supaduper]
TF330: 030+64MB RAM+IDE, complete expansion for the CD32 [alenppc]
CD32 TF330 rev3 030/50mhz 64mb Fast ram IDE Accelerator [supaduper]

For Amiga 500
Warp 560 (68060@100MHz, 256MB RAM, RTG, Sound card and WiFi)
TF536: 030+64 MB+IDE internal expansion for the A500 [alenppc]

For Amiga 1200
Warp 1260 (68060@100MHz, 256MB RAM, RTG, Sound card and WiFi)

Fits many Amiga models
AmigaWarp (for Amiga 1200, 500, 4000 and 3000)
68EC020 TK – new A500/A1000/A2000 accelerator by Matze

Lukas Hartmann, VA2000 graphics card and the new ZZ9000

MNT ZZ9000 Amiga Graphics Accelerator + Network, USB
Dev74 blog

(Rabi Abbot)


Using a VGA monitor on the Amiga

15kHz compatible monitors

Signal converter

Amiga emulation

Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi Amiga Emulation Part 1 Part 2
Amibian home
Google search for 'amibian'
Google search for 'pimiga'
Google search for 'retropie'
Google search for 'amiberry'

How to create an AmiHybrid Pi4 setup for free – ish


Apollo Accelerator’s Home
Apollo Core 68080
A look at the Vampire V4 Stand-Alone FPGA, first impressions
Coffin R57
Exploring Coffin OS (Vampire) with WinUAE – pt 1
Exploring the Coffin OS with WinUAE – pt 2

MiST, MiniMig


Amiga Forever

The Company – Amiga games and demos as executables for windows

FS-UAE / Amilator

Google search for 'fs-uae'
Amilator (Was: FS-UAE Standalone like Amithlon)
FS-UAE standalone USB
Amilator v 4.12-3
Current release, built on Debian 9.4 live
Amilator downloads
Debian 9.4

Picasso IV ROM


LibreELEC downloads


Building a virtual Amiga for retrogaming in WinUAE
Installing AmigaOS 3.1.4 on CF card through WinUAE
How to load kickstart rom 3.1.4 into memory?


AROS Nightly builds downloads
AEROS 4.3 for raspberry Pi available as free download
Icaros Desktop
Aros-One x86

Build an Aros based Amiga computer from scrap parts

PC Booting AROS and AmigaOS 3.1

Emulating other systems on the Amiga

PC-Task and PCx

Mac / Apple emulation
Shapeshifter, Fusion and Emplant

Emulation on the Amiga

Amiga repairs and hardware hacks

Recapping the Amiga
Recapping the Amiga (John Hertell)
Who does your recapping? (
Amiga capacitor list

Amiga memory expansions, repairs and hardware mods

Amiga RAM Expansion A501 RTC Battery Replacement (Read desription first!)

Google search for 'amiga+500+1Mb+on+motherboard'
A500 rev6a chipRAM mods (1MB on motherboard)

Amiga CD32 – Trash to Treasure (RetroManCave)


Commodore Amiga CD32 Pickup – Repair Part 1 (Not Reading Discs, Disc Not Spinning)

Solder Tutorial (Keith Noneya)

Amiga 500 With Battery Corroded RAM Card, how to replace corroded copper

Amiga floppy repairs

Amiga floppy repair (YouTube search)
Amiga 500 Plus – Trasig diskettstation?

Other links

Reusing the Amiga 2000 case for an Amiga 1200
Amiga 500 rev 3 teardown