Xpenology – Synology DSM on non-Synology hardware

This bunch of resources need to be reorganized some day.. I just made it to close off a rotting web browser window..

General

https://xpenology.org/
https://xpenology.org/installation/
https://xpenology.club/category/tutorials/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/9394-installation-faq/?tab=comments#comment-81101
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/9392-general-faq/?tab=comments#comment-82390

Specific hardware

https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/20314-buffalo-terastation-ts5800d/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haswell_(microarchitecture)

Misc

https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/24864-transcoding-without-a-valid-serial-number/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/38939-serial-number-for-ds918/
https://xpenogen.github.io/serial_generator/index.html

https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/29872-tutorial-mount-boot-stick-partitions-in-windows-edit-grubcfg-add-extralzma/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/12422-xpenology-tool-for-windows-x64/page/5/

Unsorted

https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/12952-dsm-62-loader/page/75/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/28183-running-623-on-esxi-synoboot-is-broken-fix-available/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/13333-tutorialreference-6x-loaders-and-platforms/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/7973-tutorial-installmigrate-dsm-52-to-61x-juns-loader/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/7294-links-to-dsm-and-critical-updates/

Synology DSM archive

https://archive.synology.com/download/Os/DSM/6.2.3-25426-3

Errors

https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/14114-usb-stick-no-vidpid/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/9853-dsm_ds3617xs-installation-error-the-file-is-probably-corrupt-13/
https://xpenology.com/forum/topic/13253-error-21-problem/

Synology DSM 7 and broken FTP support in curl

I recently updated my DS1517 to DSM 7 and noticed that FTP support has been left out in curl/libcurl they included. This is how I compiled the latest version of curl, including support for all omitted protocols. It still needs more fixing, since I was not able to compile it with SSL support (so no https, which is included in curl in DSM 7).

My guide is for the Synology DS1517 (ARM). You have to download the correct files for your NAS and set the correct options (paths and names) for the compile tools if you have another model.

The problem

For some unknown reason, Synology decided to drop support for all protocols except http and https in the included curl binary with DSM7:

root@DS1517:~# curl --version
curl 7.75.0 (arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi) libcurl/7.75.0 OpenSSL/1.1.1k zlib/1.2.11 c-ares/1.14.0 nghttp2/1.41.0
Release-Date: 2021-02-03
Protocols: http https
Features: alt-svc AsynchDNS Debug HTTP2 HTTPS-proxy IPv6 Largefile libz NTLM NTLM_WB SSL TrackMemory UnixSockets
root@DS1517:~#

The outcome of following this guide:

curl.ftp --version
curl 7.79.1 (arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf) libcurl/7.79.1
Release-Date: 2021-09-22
Protocols: dict file ftp gopher http imap mqtt pop3 rtsp smtp telnet tftp
Features: alt-svc AsynchDNS IPv6 Largefile UnixSockets

As seen and mentioned above, I was not able to enable SSL in my compiled version, so this will not replace curl included in DSM7, but could be installed in /bin under another name as it has the libcurl statically linked in the binary.

What you need to compile for the Synology

The first thing you need is a Linux installation as a development system containing the Synology toolkit for cross-compiling.
A fairly standard installation will do, at least mine did (but that also includes PHP, MySQL, Apache and other useful stuff). This is preferably done on a virtual machine, but you can of course use a physical computer for it.

You also need the Synology DSM toolchain for the CPU in the NAS you want to compile for. I found the links in the Synology Developer Guide (beta).
There is also supposed to be a online version of the guide, but at least for me, all the links within it were not working.

Get the toolchain
To find out which toolchain you need, run the command ‘uname -a’:

root@DS1517:~# uname -a
Linux DS1517 3.10.108 #41890 SMP Thu Jul 15 03:42:22 CST 2021 armv7l GNU/Linux synology_alpine_ds1517

As seen above, the DS1517 reports “synology_alpine_ds1517”, so you should look for the “alpine” versions of downloads for this NAS.
Get the correct toolchain for your NAS from Synology toolkit downloads. For the DS1517, I downloaded the file “alpine-gcc472_glibc215_alpine-GPL.txz”:
Download and unpack on the development system:

wget "https://global.download.synology.com/download/ToolChain/toolchain/7.0-41890/Annapurna%20Alpine%20Linux%203.10.108/alpine-gcc472_glibc215_alpine-GPL.txz"
tar xJf alpine-gcc472_glibc215_alpine-GPL.txz -C /usr/local/

The above will download and unpack the toolchain to the /usr/local/arm-linux-gnueabihf folder. This contains Linux executables for the GNU compilers (gcc, g++ etc).

arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc: No such file or directory
Now, whenever you try to execute any of the commands extracted to the bin directory, you will probably get the “No such file or directory” error (even with the correct path and filename and the file is executable).
If you examine the executable files using the ‘file’ command you will discover that these are 32-bit executables:

root@ubu-01:~# file /usr/local/arm-linux-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc-4.7.2
/usr/local/arm-linux-gnueabihf/bin/arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc-4.7.2: ELF 32-bit LSB executable, Intel 80386, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib/ld-linux.so.2, for GNU/Linux 2.6.15, stripped

I found the solution to the problem here:
arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc: No such file or directory
In short:

dpkg --add-architecture i386
apt-get update
apt-get install git build-essential fakeroot
apt-get install gcc-multilib
apt-get install zlib1g:i386

Now that we have the cross-compiling toolkit working, let’s continue with curl.

Cross-compile curl for Synology NAS

The current version at the time I wrote the guide was 7.79.1, so I download the source and then uncompress it:

wget https://curl.se/download/curl-7.79.1.tar.gz
tar xfz curl-7.79.1.tar.gz
cd curl-7.79.1

Set some variables and GCC options

export TC="arm-linux-gnueabihf"
export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/${TC}/bin
export CPPFLAGS="-I/usr/local/${TC}/${TC}/include"
export AR=${TC}-ar
export AS=${TC}-as
export LD=${TC}-ld
export RANLIB=${TC}-ranlib
export CC=${TC}-gcc
export NM=${TC}-nm

Build and install into installdir

./configure --disable-shared --enable-static --without-ssl --host=${TC} --prefix=/usr/local/${TC}/${TC}
make
make install

The above will build a statically linked curl binary for the Synology, and put the binary in the ‘bin’ folder indicated by the path specified with –prefix.

The final step is to copy the ‘curl’ binary over to the Synology (not to /bin yet) and test it, use “–version” to check that the binary supports FTP and the other by Synology omitted protocols:

./curl --version
curl 7.79.1 (arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf) libcurl/7.79.1
Release-Date: 2021-09-22
Protocols: dict file ftp gopher http imap mqtt pop3 rtsp smtp telnet tftp
Features: alt-svc AsynchDNS IPv6 Largefile UnixSockets

If everything seems ok, copy the file to /bin and give it another name:

cp -p curl /bin/curl.ftp

If it complains about different version of curl and libcurl, you failed somewhere when trying to link the correct libcurl statically.

Most useful sources for this article:

https://global.download.synology.com/download/Document/Software/DeveloperGuide/Firmware/DSM/7.0/enu/DSM_Developer_Guide_7_0_Beta.pdf
https://thalib.github.io/2017/02/17/32bit-no-such-a-file-or-directory/
https://curl.se/docs/install.html

Apollo Accelerators – Vampire

Apollo Core (68080)
Apollo Forum
Apollo Accelerators
Apollo Accelerators Wiki
Vampire 500 V2: Part 1Part 2 (Epsilon’s Amiga Blog)
Checkmate A1500 Plus with Vampire 500V2 (Epsilon’s Amiga Blog)

My Vampire Card has arrived! (Lyonsden Blog)
Installing the Vampire V500 V2+ in my Amiga 500 (Lyonsden Blog)

AmiKit XE for Vampire V2 (AmiKit XE changelog)

majsta.com (Vampire PCB maker)
GOLD 3 Alpha
Quartus Prime (for flashing Vampire using USB Blaster)

Videos

Amiga Vampire CoffinOs – Quick setup and fun (Cotter’s Stuff)


Apollo Vampire – Emulation or Amiga AAA Salvation (Stephen Jones)

Episode 79 68080 Vampire install Amiga 2000 (Chris Edwards)

Amiga 500 Plus & Vampire 500 V2 + Follow Up (Dave’s Game Room)

8/16/2020 Demo of new Apollo OS with Manuel Jesus of Apollo Team, Tiny Bobble & EPIC Unboxing (Amiga Bill)

piStorm – AmigaOS 3.1 installation

This article will probably repeat some points in the piStorm – basic configuration guide. It’s meant as a quickstart for those who not at this time want to explore all the possibilities the piStorm gives.

Be sure to put the files (kickstart and hdf) in the right location on the SD-card, whatever you want, or follow my directions and put them in /home/pi/amiga-files. The important thing is that the paths in the configuration is set to the same.

Installation of AmigaOS 3.1 on a small hard drive

For this installation, I have choosen AmigaOS 3.1 for several reasons. The main reason is its availability, in reach for everyone through Amiga Forever Plus edition, and also because its low amount of installation disks (6 disks needed, instead of 17 or similar for 3.2).

Conditions:
Configuration files are given a descriptive name and put into /home/pi/cfg. At start of the emulator, the actual config is copied as “default.cfg” and put into /home/pi. This is part of what I did to make it possible to switch config files using the keyboard attached to the Pi (Linux: how to run commands by keypress on the local console).
Amiga-related files (kickstart and hdf) are stored in /home/pi/amiga-files

With “floppy”/”disk” (or drive) in this guide, any Amiga compatible replacement, such as a GoTek drive with Flashfloppy, can be used.

For a basic AmigaOS 3.1 installation, have these disks (in this order) available.
amiga-os-310-install
amiga-os-310-workbench
amiga-os-310-locale
amiga-os-310-extras
amiga-os-310-fonts
amiga-os-310-storage

These disks are available from your legally acquired Amiga Forever Plus Edition (or above), any release from 2008 (my oldest one) and up is recent enough. Look for the adf files in the “Amiga files/System/adf” or “Amiga files/Shared/adf” folder.
You also need the kickstart ROM from the same base folder (“System” or “Shared”). The file you want is the “amiga-os-310-a1200.rom”. I have renamed the kickstart file to “kick-31-a1200-40.68.rom” and then put it in my “amiga-files” folder on the pi.

Start by setting up the piStorm configuration for using the correct ROM and for enabling hard drive support:
Copy the configuration template “pistorm/default.cfg” to “/home/pi/cfg/a1200_4068_os31.cfg”, then change/add:

...
map type=rom address=0xF80000 size=0x80000 file=../amiga-files/kick-31-a1200-40.68.rom ovl=0 id=kickstart
...
setvar piscsi0 ../amiga-files/system_31.hdf
...

It’s also important to use a the first available free SCSI id here (piscsi0), as there is a unique feature in piscsi that hides all drives configured following a gap in the SCSI id sequence, so that they won’t be seen in HDToolBox. piscsi0 must always be used by any disk, otherwise, you will get an empty list of drives in HDToolBox.

After saving the changes, go ahead and create an empty hdf for the installation:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/home/pi/amiga-files/system_31.hdf bs=504k count=1000

504MB is enormous in Amiga-terms πŸ™‚
The bs (block size) of 504k gives the piStorm the optimal number of heads (16) and blocks per track (63) on auto-detecting the hard drive geometry.

Insert the amiga-os-310-install floppy and start up the emulator:
(and start with stopping it if it’s running, “killall -9 emulator” or use systemctl if you have followed my instructions on setting it up as a service)

cd /home/pi/pistorm
sudo ./emulator --config ../cfg/a1200_4068_os31.cfg

Workbench will load from the installation disk. Copy HDToolBox from HDTools (put it on the RAM-disk). Change the tooltype SCSI_DEVICE_NAME (to pi-scsi.device).
Run HDToolBox from RAM:, and you will see a new unknown disk. Use “Change Drive Type”, “Define New…” and then “Read Configuration”. Return to the main window (click the “OK” buttons).
Partition the drive. Remove the second partition, and set the size of the first to something large enough for AmigaOS. 80MB is plenty of space (AmgiaOS 3.1 takes up 2.8MB fully installed). Create another partition of the rest of the space. Change the device names of the partitions if you wish.
Save changes and soft-reboot the Amiga (it will boot up from the install floppy again). You will see the two unformatted (PDH0 and PDH1:NDOS) drives. Format PDH0 (or whatever you set as device names), the smaller one, and name it “System”, uncheck “Put Trashcan”, check “Fast File System”, uncheck “International Mode”, then click “Quick Format” and accept all the warnings).

Start the installation from the Install-floppy (select “Intermediate user” to have some control of the options), use whatever language you wish for the installation process and select languages and keymaps as desired. Change floppy when the installer asks for it. Once done, remove the install floppy and let the installer reboot your Amiga.
It will boot up from the hard drive to your fresh installation of AmigaOS 3.1. Format the other partition and name it “Work” or whatever you want. Follow the instructions above (FFS, no trash, no intl, quick format).

That’s it.

a314: access to a folder on the pi as a drive on the Amiga

Most of below is a rewrite of the documentation for a314 for the pistorm.

To make it a lot easier to transfer files over to the Amiga, a folder can be shared as a drive through a314 emulation.

On the pi-side:
To keep contents and configuration files safe when updating the piStorm software, I put the config files in /home/pi/cfg and content in /home/pi/amiga-files/a314-shared. If you do not, and keep the configuration unchanged, the shared files will be in the “data” folder inside the pistorm binary directory (/home/pi/pistorm/data/a314-shared).

Copy the files that needs to be changed for keeping the content safe:

cd
cp pistorm/a314/files_pi/a3*conf cfg

In a314d.conf, change the a314fs line (add the -conf-file part):

a314fs python3 ./a314/files_pi/a314fs.py -conf-file /home/pi/cfg/a314fs.conf

In a314fs.conf, change the location for the shared folder:

{
  "devices": {
    "PI0": {
      "volume": "PiDisk",
      "path": "/home/pi/amiga-files/a314-shared"
    }
  }
}

Then, in the pistorm computer configuration (your copy of ‘default.cfg’), enable a314 and the custom configuration for it:

...
setvar a314_conf /home/pi/cfg/a314d.conf
setvar a314
...

On the Amiga-side:
The needed files are on the pistorm utility hdf (pistorm.hdf, disk named “PiStorm”) pre-set in the default.cfg and you should have had it available since activation of piscsi above.

From the a314 folder on the utility hdf, copy “a314.device” to DEVS:, “a314fs” to L: and append the content of “a314fs-mountlist” to DEVS:mountlist:

copy pistorm:a314/a314.device DEVS:
copy pistorm:a314/a314fs L:
type pistorm:a314/a314fs-mountlist >> DEVS:Mountlist

Then after a restart of the emulator (with the newly modified configuration in place), you should be able to mount the shared folder using “execute command” or from a shell:

mount pi0:

RTG with Picasso96 (old version)

RTG is a standard feature of the piStorm since ‘long’ ago. It requires the Picasso96 (2.0 from Aminet, or the more recent one, renamed P96, from Individual Computer) software to be installed before adding the necessary drivers from the piStorm utility hdf.

On the Amiga-side:
Using Picasso96 2.0 from Aminet, go through the installation process and do not install application drivers or the printer patch, then from the piStorm utility hdf, the installation script for the needed drivers can be found in the “RTG” folder.
You need to have the extracted content of the Picasso96 installation files available during this step of the installation.

On the pi-side:
Activate rtg in the configuration:

...
setvar rtg
...

Restart the emulator. The Amiga will be rebooted at that point. After a reboot, you will have the RTG sceenmodes available in Prefs/Screenmode.

Be sure to test the screenmodes before saving. Some of the modes are less useable because of the way the scaling is handled. I recommend sticking to mainly two resulotions on a 1080p capable screen: 960×540 (and any color depth) and 1920×1080 (up to 16 bit).

a314: networking

How to set up the network using the a314 emulation is well described in the a314 documentation on Github, execpt from how to set it up on “any” Amiga TCP/IP stack.

On the pi-side:
Follow the directions in the documentation for the pi-side, mainly as below:
Enable the a314 emulation in your configuration (should already have been done if you followed this guide):

...
setvar a314
...

Then install pip3, pytun and copy the tap0 interface:

sudo apt install python3-pip
sudo pip3 install python-pytun
sudo cp /home/pi/pistorm/a314/files_pi/eth-config-pi/tap0 /etc/network/interfaces.d/

Add the firewall rules for forwarding packages, and make the rules persistant:

sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o wlan0 -j MASQUERADE  
sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i wlan0 -o tap0 -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT  
sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i tap0 -o wlan0 -j ACCEPT
sudo apt install iptables-persistent

Enable IPv4 forwarding (in the /etc/sysctl.conf file):

sudo nano -w /etc/sysctl.conf

(remove the # from the commented out line)

...
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
...

Add to the end of /etc/rc.local, but before the “exit 0” line:

...
arp -s 192.168.2.2 40:61:33:31:34:65
exit 0
...

Reboot the pi.

sudo reboot

On the Amiga-side:
If not already done so, copy the a314.device from the piStorm utility hdf to DEVS:

copy pistorm:a314/a314.device DEVS:

Copy the a314 SANA-II driver to devs:

copy pistorm:a314/a314eth.device DEVS:

For the rest of the configuration on the Amiga, you need a TCP/IP stack such as Roadshow or AmiTCP as documented on Github. For any other stack you’re “on your own”. Here are the settings you have to enter in the correct places:
SANA-II driver: a314eth.device (in Miami, it’s the last option “other SANA-II driver”)
Unit: 0
Your IP address: 192.168.2.2
Netmask: 255.255.255.0
Gateway: 192.168.2.1
DNS: 8.8.8.8, 4.4.4.4, 1.1.1.1, 1.0.0.1 or similar (any public DNS will work, these are the Google public DNS servers)

Installing Miami 3.2b

Miami 3.2b is a GUI-based TCP/IP stack for the Amiga available from Aminet. You need three archives to make the installation complete:
Miami32b2-main.lha
Miami32b-020.lha
Miami32b-GTL.lha

Extract these files to RAM: (lha x [archive name] ram:), and start the Miami installer from there. The next step is the configuration. From the folder where Miami was installed, start MiamiInit and follow the guide, giving the values as listed above for IP address, netmask, gateway and DNS.
When you reach the end of MiamiInit, you should input “Name” and “user name”, then save the configuration (you can uncheck the “Save information sheet” and “Print information sheet”.

Start Miami and import the just saved settings.
Click the “Database” button and choose “hosts” from the pull-down menu.
Click on “Add” and fill in your IP-address (192.168.2.2) and name (for example “amiga”).
Click “Ok”, then choose “Save as default” from the Settings menu.
Click on “Online” whenever you want to be connected (auto-online is available only for registered users but I assume you could launch Miami and put it online from ARexx).

Running sites on different versions of PHP on the same server

This quick guide explains the steps needed to be able to run different versions of PHP on the same server (different virtual hosts or even different folders within the same site).

Prepare

If the ‘add-apt-repository’ command is missing, you need to install the package “software-properties-common” first:

apt install -y software-properties-common

Add the ondrej/php repository to your system:

add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php

apt update, upgrade:

apt update
apt upgrade

Install Apache fastCGI module:

apt install -y libapache2-mod-fcgid

For each version of PHP

As of 1 Jan 2021, PHP versions 7.4 (php7.4) and 8.0 (php8.0) are those with active support and updates. PHP version 7.3 (php7.3) will continue to receive critical updates until 1 Jan 2022. See Supported PHP Versions.

Install required packages

apt install -y php7.4 php7.4-fpm php7.4-mysql libapache2-mod-php7.4

Install other wanted modules for the same PHP version, for example these commonly used:

apt install -y php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-imagick php7.4-intl php7.4-mbstring php7.4-readline php7.4-json

Start the php-fpm service:

systemctl start php7.4-fpm

Check that the service is running:

systemctl status php7.4-fpm

For each version, also any custom configuration in php.ini has to be duplicated. In Ubuntu the php.ini files are located in the subfolders of /etc/php/x.x/ (one subfolder for each run environment, “apache2”, “cgi”, “cli”, “fpm”).

Set new default PHP version used by Apache

To set the default PHP version to use when not overridden by SetHandler below, use the commands a2dismod and a2enmod.
Set default to PHP 8.0

a2dismod php7.4
a2enmod php8.0
systemctl restart apache2

Set default to PHP 7.4

a2dismod php8.0
a2enmod php7.4
systemctl restart apache2

Configuring PHP version for virtual host or subfolder

Activate necessary Apache modules and restart Apache:

a2enmod actions fcgid alias proxy_fcgi
systemctl restart apache2

Use FilesMatch directive to set the PHP version:
FilesMatch is valid in both the virtualhost configuration and inside a Directory section.
To set PHP version globally for a virtual host, use it outside a Directory section.
The default PHP version can be set using ‘a2enmod php8.0’ (or any other version)

<FilesMatch \.php$>
  SetHandler "proxy:unix:/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock|fcgi://localhost"
</FilesMatch>

Check the configuration for errors:

apachectl configtest

If result is “Syntax OK”, restart Apache:

systemctl restart apache2

Overriding PHP version using .htaccess

For this to work, “AllowOverride FileInfo” must be present for the directory (or above) in which the .htaccess file will be used to set the PHP version.
For the default virtual host, the DocumentRoot is set to /var/www/html, so to allow PHP version to be set by .htaccess at that level or below, the following must be present in the vhost configuration:

  <Directory /var/www/html>
    AllowOverride FileInfo
  </Directory>

When this has been set, FilesMatch and SetHandler (as described above) can be used within the .htaccess file. The .htaccess method have higher priority than what is set for the virtualhost, or the subfolder within the DocumentRoot of the virtual host.

Testing

Create a file named ‘i.php’ in the locations with the different PHP versions (can be different virtualhosts or folders)

<?php
phpversion();
?>

Access these locations on the virtualhosts or their directory locations to verify that they are using different PHP versions.

References

Most useful resource for this guide
How To Run Multiple PHP Versions on One Server Using Apache and PHP-FPM on Ubuntu 18.04 (DigitalOcean Community)

Linux: how to run commands by keypress on the local console

This is probably not the only way to do this, and just something I had to dig up to be able to control the piStorm from the console keyboard without being logged in.

After trying to find some built-in way of doing it, I ended up using ‘lirc’ (‘inputlircd’) to fetch the keystrokes and execute appropriate commands in the background. The guide is not intended to be complete, and it’s not even re-tested because of the trial-and-error attempt on getting this working the first time, and not taking any notes.

The most useful resource for the success was:
How to run script on keypress? (superuser.com)

Required steps to getting started with lirc

Become root

sudo su -

Install required packages:

apt -y install lirc inputlirc input-utils socat

Configuration
Find the input device you wish to capture keypresses from:

lsinput

The not really necessary step
Examine the inputlirc start/stop script “/etc/init.d/inputlirc” to see where it looks for configuration:

...
DAEMON="/usr/sbin/inputlircd"
NAME="inputlirc"
DESC="inputlirc"

test -x $DAEMON || exit 0

[ -r /etc/default/$NAME ] && . /etc/default/$NAME
...

The marked lines in the partial content of “/etc/init.d/inputlirc” reveals that a file “/etc/default/inputlirc” is sourced.

Change startup parameters for inputlircd
“/etc/default/inputlirc” contains parameters for running inputlircd, including the input device to capture events from and the parameters to the service looking for keystrokes.

Read the inputlircd manpage (man 8 inputlircd) to find out which parameters you need/want to use. The below is what I had to put in the file:

# Options to be passed to inputlirc.
EVENTS="/dev/input/event0"
OPTIONS=-m 0 -c

-m 0 = -m sets the lowest keycode to pass to the daemon
I also use -c to allow to capture the modifier keys (CTRL, SHIFT, ALT) so they will be part of a keystroke instead of generating their own events. This will make it possible to use combinations like SHIFT + F1 for command execution.

After editing and saving the file, enable and (re)start the inputlirc service:

systemctl enable inputlirc
systemctl restart inputlirc

Then check that it’s running:

systemctl status inputlirc

Snooping for keypress events
Unless you know all the keycodes you are going to use for running commands, now is a good time to check what lircd receives on specific keypresses. Run the command to snoop for keypresses in the shell, and press keys on the keyboard connected to the computer (this could be connected through USB, PS/2, Bluetooth, IR, whatever)

socat UNIX-CONNECT:/var/run/lirc/lircd STDOUT

Sample output (F12 and modifier keys)

root@raspberrypi:~# socat UNIX-CONNECT:/var/run/lirc/lircd STDOUT
58 0 SHIFT_KEY_F12 /dev/input/event0
58 0 CTRL_SHIFT_KEY_F12 /dev/input/event0

The irexec service
To make the irexec service restart when inputlirc is restarted (due to a key configuration change), the service startup file has to be slightly modified:

/lib/systemd/system/irexec.service:

[Unit]
Documentation=man:irexec(1)
Documentation=http://lirc.org/html/configure.html
Documentation=http://lirc.org/html/configure.html#lircrc_format
Description=Handle events from IR remotes decoded by lircd(8)
After=inputlirc.service
Requires=inputlirc.service
...

Add the lines marked above, then rebuild the systemd service configuration file and enable and start the irexec service:

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable irexec
systemctl start irexec

Check that the irexec.service is running:

systemctl status irexec

Configuring what to run on keypresses
The file “/etc/lirc/irexec.lircrc” contains the configuration for what commands to run when selected key(combinations) are used. Wipe out all the defaults in there and add something useful. Below is the updated, more generic configuration I use on my PiOS for the piStorm now, just mapping some keys to a script with a similar name:

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F1
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f1.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F2
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f2.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F3
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f3.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F4
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f4.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F5
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f5.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F6
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f6.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F7
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f7.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F8
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f8.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F9
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f9.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F10
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f10.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F11
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f11.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = SHIFT_KEY_F12
    config = /home/pi/irexec/shift_f12.sh
end

begin
    prog   = irexec
    button = CTRL_SHIFT_KEY_F12
    config = /home/pi/irexec/ctrl_shift_f12.sh
end

Whenever you have made a change to /etc/lirc/irexec.lircrc, you need to restart inputlirc (which automatically restarts liexec):

systemctl restart inputlirc

Action scripts in /home/pi/irexec
These scripts can be updated without having to restart inputlirc. Be sure to set the execute flag on them (chmod 755 /home/pi/irexec/*.sh)
For the piOS installation for the piStorm, the content of my configuration-switching scripts are as follows:

/home/pi/irexec/shift_f1.sh (the F-keys 1-10 with the SHIFT key held down):

#!/bin/sh
cp /home/pi/cfg/a1200_4068_os31.cfg /home/pi/default.cfg
sudo systemctl restart pistorm

In a similar way, I have set up the other shift-f-key combinations as shown in the video.

I have used SHIFT+F12 for a safe reboot, and CTRL+SHIFT+F12 for a shutdown of the pi. If running piStorm in RTG mode there can be a delay of about 1 minute before something happens.

/home/pi/irexec/shift_f12.sh:

#!/bin/sh
sudo systemctl stop pistorm
sudo reboot

/home/pi/irexec/ctrl_shift_f12.sh:

#!/bin/sh
sudo systemctl stop pistorm
sudo halt -p

You can check the status of the piStorm service to see that it received the shutdown command:

root@raspberrypi:~# systemctl status pistorm
● pistorm.service - Start piStorm 68k emulator
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/pistorm.service; disabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: deactivating (final-sigterm) since Sat 2021-04-24 23:48:43 BST; 1min 6s ago
  Process: 1023 ExecStart=/home/pi/start-emulator.sh (code=killed, signal=TERM)
 Main PID: 1023 (code=killed, signal=TERM)
    Tasks: 10 (limit: 873)
   CGroup: /system.slice/pistorm.service
           β”œβ”€1024 sudo ./emulator --config /home/pi/default.cfg
           └─1025 ./emulator --config /home/pi/default.cfg

Apr 24 13:23:53 raspberrypi start-emulator.sh[1023]: [MUSASHI] Mapped read range 4: 40000000-48000000
Apr 24 13:23:53 raspberrypi start-emulator.sh[1023]: [MUSASHI] Mapped write range 3: 40000000-4800000
Apr 24 13:23:53 raspberrypi start-emulator.sh[1023]: Platform custom range: 00E90000-80010000
Apr 24 13:23:53 raspberrypi start-emulator.sh[1023]: Platform mapped range: 00200000-48000000
Apr 24 13:23:53 raspberrypi start-emulator.sh[1023]: RTG display disabled.
Apr 24 13:23:53 raspberrypi start-emulator.sh[1023]: Pitch: 800 (800 bytes)
Apr 24 13:23:53 raspberrypi start-emulator.sh[1023]: RTG thread running
Apr 24 13:23:53 raspberrypi start-emulator.sh[1023]: error: XDG_RUNTIME_DIR not set in the environmen
Apr 24 23:48:43 raspberrypi systemd[1]: Stopping Start piStorm 68k emulator...
Apr 24 23:48:43 raspberrypi systemd[1]: pistorm.service: Main process exited, code=killed, status=15/
root@raspberrypi:~# 

Revised start-emulator.sh script
Because I want to run the wip-crap version of the emulator at some points, I have added a check for the mentioning of “wip-crap” in the configuration file that is going to be used, then depending on its existance or not, launching the emulator from the correct directory:

#!/bin/sh
if grep -q wip-crap "/home/pi/default.cfg"; then
  echo "wip-crap"
  cd /home/pi/pistorm-bnu/
else
  echo "main"
  cd /home/pi/pistorm/
fi
sudo ./emulator --config /home/pi/default.cfg
exit 0

To enable the wip-crap version, just add a comment in the beginning of the configuration such as:

# using wip-crap functions

piStorm – basic configuration

After going through my Getting Started guide you have the piStorm starting up automatically (if followed the very last step) as a emulated 68020 CPU. If your onboard kickstart allows it, you might also have 128MB Z3 RAM. It will start up and display the “insert a disk” screen/animation depending on which Kickstart you have on the Amiga motherboard.

Configuration file

The default configuration file, named “default.cfg”, is located in the “pistorm” folder. It’s a good idea to keep this file untouched and make changes to a copy of it, then telling the emulator to use it by using the –config parameter.

In my installations, I have put the copy of “default.cfg” in /home/pi (“../” as a relative path from within the pistorm folder), and keep the rest of Amiga-related files (kickstart and hdf) in a folder named “amiga-files” in the ‘pi’ user’s home (/home/pi/amiga-files).

Here are the very initial steps to copy the default configuration to /home/pi, and to set up the amiga-files folder (after logging in as the ‘pi’ user):

cp -p pisotrm/default.cfg .
mkdir amiga-files

Stop the 68k-emulator if it is running (two methods, depending on how/if it is auto starting):
If started from rc.local:

sudo killall emulator

If set up as a service:

sudo systemctl stop pistorm

Now to autostart the 68k-emulator with a specified configuration file, edit rc.local (if it is started from there) and add –config ../default.cfg so the full command reads:

cd /home/pi/pistorm/ && sudo ./emulator --config ../default.cfg&

For the service method (using my instructions), change the file β€œstart-emulator.sh” in /home/pi:

#!/bin/sh
cd /home/pi/pistorm/
sudo ./emulator --config ../default.cfg
exit 0

Start the 68k-emulator again by running the command from the rc.local file above (for non-service autostart), or by using systemctl if you have set it up as a service:

sudo systemctl start pistorm

For further restarts of the 68k-emulator, do as previously described with “killall” or “systemctl” depending on your choice of setup. With “systemctl” there is also the “restart” option:

sudo systemctl restart pistorm

A restart of the 68k-emulator will also reboot the Amiga.

Configuration options

The default.cfg contains some examples and descriptions of many of the options available. You can also read the current distributed configuration file on GitHub:
default.cfg

Documentation for some the piStorm features for the Amiga is located within some subfolders on GitHub:
piscsi (map hdf files as hard drives on the Amiga side)
rtg (RTG using the Picasso96/P96 package)
net (not fully implemented)
a314 (includes shared folder on sd-card, networking and shell-access to the pi)

CPU type

The easiest one, leave this at “68020”. This is the most complete and compatible CPU for the emulator.

Kickstart mapping

To get better performance and enable Z3 RAM and get P96 2.4+ working, a Kickstart version 3.1 (40.68) for Amiga 1200 is highly recommended. To obtain the kickstart file the correct way, purchase the Plus edition of Amiga Forever. If you own an Amiga 1200, you can also use any of the tools available for saving the kickstart to a file.

You can name the file whatever you want, but mine is named (renamed from the Amiga Forever set) “kick-31-a1200-40.68.rom”, and I have the file in “/home/pi/amiga-files”.

Early in the config, there is this line:

# Map 512KB kickstart ROM to default offset.
map type=rom address=0xF80000 size=0x80000 file=kick.rom ovl=0

It makes the emulator look for the file “kick.rom” in the current directory (as cd:ed to /home/pi/pistorm before starting the emulator).

Change this to:

# Map 512KB kickstart ROM to default offset.
map type=rom address=0xF80000 size=0x80000 file=../amiga-files/kick-31-a1200-40.68.rom ovl=0

Then restart the emulator to see that it uses the kickstart file (easy to spot if you have a 2.x or 1.x KS on the motherboard).

Have the installation floppy for AmigaOS 3.1 ready (also available from Amiga Forever). If you boot the installation floppy, you would end up at the Workbench and be able to see that the FastRAM (128MB Z3) has been mapped.

Memory mapping

The default memory section in the config looks like this:

# Map 128MB of Fast RAM at 0x8000000, also known as 32-bit Fast RAM or CPU local Fast RAM.
# Only supported properly on select Kickstarts, such as 3.1+ for Amiga 1200, 3000 and 4000.
#map type=ram address=0x08000000 size=128M id=cpu_slot_ram
# Map 128MB of Z3 Fast. Note that the address here is not actually used, as it gets auto-assigned by Kickstart itself.
# Enabling Z3 fast requires at least Kickstart 2.0.
map type=ram address=0x10000000 size=128M id=z3_autoconf_fast
# Max 8MB of Z2 Fast can be mapped due to addressing space limitations, but for instance 2+4MB can be chained to leave 2MB for something else.
#map type=ram address=0x200000 size=8M id=z2_autoconf_fast
#map type=ram address=0x200000 size=2M id=z2_autoconf_fast
#map type=ram address=0x400000 size=4M id=z2_autoconf_fast

Pretty self-explanatory, but some of the RAM types are not supported on all Kickstarts. There is no speed difference in using “32-bit FastRAM” compared to “Z3 Fast”. The “Z2 FastRAM” is the equivalent of a RAM expansion plugged into the expansion port of Amiga 500 and Amiga 1000, or in a Zorro slot on the Amiga 2000. These expansions could be standalone or a part of a hard drive controller for those systems.

piscsi – hard drive emulation

The next section in the configuration is about piscsi, which allows you to assign up to 7 auto-mounted and auto-bootable virtual hard drives on the Amiga.

# Uncomment this line to enable the PiSCSI interface
#setvar piscsi
# Use setvar piscsi0 through piscsi6 to add up to seven mapped drives to the interface.
#setvar piscsi0 PI0.hdf
#setvar piscsi1 PI1.hdf

My virtual disk is 1GB in size and consists of several partitions (three smaller ones for different versions of AmigaOS, and a larger one for common content) and is named “amiga-1gb.hdf”. The location for my .hdf is as the Kickstart ROM, “/home/pi/amiga-files”.
To enable the pi-scsi.device, just uncomment the line “setvar piscsi”, then put the name of the .hdf as a parameter the “setvar piscsi0” (or 1-6):

# Uncomment this line to enable the PiSCSI interface
setvar piscsi
# Use setvar piscsi0 through piscsi6 to add up to seven mapped drives to the interface.
setvar piscsi0 ../amiga-files/amiga-1gb.hdf

This will make the Amiga recognize the harddrive with the correct DEVICE tooltype of HDToolbox (“DEVICE=scsi.device” should be changed to “DEVICE=pi-scsi.device”). Once set up using HDToolbox (detect/change disk type and create the partitions), it can be used to install AmigaOS on and boot from.

Also take a look at the current documentation at GitHUb:
piscsi

RTG using Picasso96 or P96

See the documentation at GitHub:
rtg (RTG using the Picasso96/P96 package)

You need two files from the GitHub repository transferred over to the Amiga after having installed Picasso96 or the more maintaned release of P96. I use my registered 2.4.6 from Individual Computers
Google search for 'P96+2.4.6'

See my updated instructions in piStorm – AmigaOS 3.1 installation

Keyboard and mouse passthrough

It’s pretty well documented in the default.cfg:

# Forward keyboard events to host system, defaults to off unless toggle key is pressed, toggled off using F12.
# Syntax: keyboard [grab key] [grab|nograb] [autoconnect|noautoconnect]
#   "grab" steals the keyboard from the Pi so Amiga/etc. input is not sent to the Pi
#   (also helps prevent sending any ctrl-alt-del to the Amiga from resetting the Pi)
#
#   "autoconnect" connects the keyboard to the Amiga/etc. on startup
keyboard k nograb noautoconnect
# Select a specific filename for the keyboard event source.
# This is typically /dev/input/event1 or event0, but it may be event3 with for instance a wireless keyboard.
# Use ls /dev/input/event* to check which event files are available and try until you find the one that works.
#kbfile /dev/input/event1
# Forward mouse events to host system, defaults to off unless toggle key is pressed on the Pi.
# Syntax is mouse [device] [toggle key] [autoconnect|noautoconnect]
# (see "keyboard" above for autoconnect description)
mouse /dev/input/mice m noautoconnect

Just enable the kbfile line and set the correct device there if it doesn’t work with the defaults.

Real Time Clock (RTC)

The RTC is enabled in the default configuration and transfers over the time and date on the Pi to the Amiga.

# Map RTC as a register range.
map type=register address=0xDC0000 size=0x30000

To get the correct time on the Pi, it must be connected to the Internet (as set up in my Getting Started guide).
Also, you must ensure the timezone is set correct on the Pi, otherwise your time will be off an hour or two. To set the correct time zone, hse the ‘timedatectl’ command:

List the available time zones:

timedatectl list-timezones

Set the time zone:

sudo timedatectl set-timezone Europe/Stockholm

Switching between multiple configurations

When you have one configuration you’re happy with, you might want to set up alternative configurations for compatibility or experimental reasons.
I wrote this guide on how to capture keypresses on a keyboard connected to the pi on the piStorm. Before setting up the commands to execute (the very last step), make a copy of your /home/pi/default.cfg, as this file is to be overwritten when changing configuration using the defined keypress events (in my example SHIFT in combination with the F-keys, SHIFT+F12 to reboot the pi, CTRL+SHIFT+F12 to shut down the pi).

Getting files over to the Amiga

Not really a configuration thing, but I’ll explain the possible methods to transfer files (as for example archives for installing, or unpacked archives of programs ready to launch the installer from) over to the Amiga.

Since networking is not yet implemented, and a shared folder from the Linux side is not available, files have to be transferred the ‘classic’ way.

The options as I see are:
* (real) floppy disks
* (adf) through either an externally connected GoTek drive, or as a replacement for the internal drive
* (hdf) a pre-prepared hdf (full RDSK image, not a partition) file containing archives of programs to install
* (adf) from a hdf, mounting using any of the available options like GoADF
* physical disk connected to the pi, then exported as a piscsi device on the Amiga (complicated and a bit risky, described in detail in the piscsi documentation at GitHub)

piStorm – experimental stuff wip-crap

Some documentation (at least of changes) can be found in the repo: https://github.com/beeanyew/pistorm/tree/wip-crap/

Get and build piStorm software (wip-crap tree)

mkdir -p /home/pi/bnu
cd /home/pi/bnu
git clone https://github.com/beeanyew/pistorm.git
cd pistorm
git checkout wip-crap
make
cd ..
mv pistorm ../pistorm-bnu

Expected output:

Update CPLD bitstream

Build the program to test access to chip RAM

cd pistorm-bnu
chmod +x ./build_buptest.sh
./build_buptest.sh

For EPM240

chmod +x nprog_240.sh
sudo ./nprog_240.sh

For EPM570

chmod +x nprog.sh
sudo ./nprog.sh

wip-crap-only feature configuration

By the merge of July 11 2021, main is up to date with wip-crap.

piStorm – Getting started

In this guide, I explain how I set up the piStorm, beginning from a fresh board (with just the pins and pi header soldered onto it) until it starts up the Kickstart “insert disk” screen. This is not the only way to do things, and necessarily not the best way, it’s my way πŸ™‚

Pi setup

Use the official Raspberry Pi Imager or a third party tool like BalenaEtcher to write the Lite version of Raspberry Pi OS to a SD-card and start up the pi
Using raspi-config, set wifi-credentials (System Options) and activate SSH (Interface Options).
(everything except the basic installation can be done without network connectivity, but it is easier to do it over SSH than at the terminal)

sudo su -
apt -y update
apt -y upgrade

Updating will take about 10 minutes. Usually a reboot is recommended here, but in this case not necessary, so continue with the section below and install some packages and test the GPIOs.

Install required packages

apt -y install git
apt -y install libsdl2-dev
apt -y install openocd
exit

Testing your Pi’s GPIO pins

Testing your Pi’s GPIO pins. This MUST be run disconnected from the PiStorm, just power up the Pi with USB and do it outside the Amiga entirely.
Info from https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=180505

sudo apt -y install pigpio
wget http://abyz.me.uk/rpi/pigpio/code/gpiotest.zip
unzip gpiotest.zip
sudo pigpiod
./gpiotest

Expected output:

Get and build piStorm software

git clone https://github.com/captain-amygdala/pistorm.git
cd pistorm
make

Expected output:

Optional step, get and build wip-crap development version

Only build the emulator for use/test later on – skip the CPLD update for now and do that when the wip-crap build is going to be used.
piStorm – experimental stuff wip-crap

Shut down the pi

This is as far as you get without the piStorm connected, so it’s time to shut down the pi and then stuff it away until you get your piStorm (- shutdown and continue as below if you already have it).
‘pigpiod’ (for testing the GPIOs) above keeps the pi waiting for 90 sec if not killed before shutdown.

sudo killall -9 pigpiod
sudo halt -p

Update CPLD bitstream

Shut down the pi, take a look 20 pixels above :), disconnect power and connect the piStorm adapter to the GPIO

Connect power and let the pi start, check network connectivity or re-setup if necessary.

Build the program to test access to chip RAM

cd pistorm
chmod +x ./build_buptest.sh
./build_buptest.sh

For EPM240

chmod +x nprog_240.sh
./nprog_240.sh

For EPM570

chmod +x nprog.sh
./nprog.sh

Expected output (nprog.sh for EPM240):

Installing the piStorm in the Amiga

Shut down the pi, disconnect everything and separate the adapter from it.
Replace the CPU in the Amiga with the adapter board (the Pi connector should be on the left side). Align both rows of pins with the CPU socket, then, without any pressure on the board, move the adapter up and down (front and back) on the socket to feel the point in which the pins are centered in the socket.
Check that all pins go into the socket an press it down until it bottoms.

Mount the pi on the adapter with the USB port facing towards you, and the HDMI connector on the right side.

Connect the HDMI output and a keyboard.

Starting the emulator

Power on the Amiga, the pi will be powered and boot up (the output from the Amiga will be just a black screen (or any other single-colored screen, I usually get a red one before the emulator starts) until the CPU emulator is started).
Login as ‘pi’ and change directory to ‘pistorm’.

Initial check – can the piStorm read and write to the CHIP RAM ?

sudo ./buptest

Expected output:

In case of any error, check that the piStorm adapter is pressed down firmly in the CPU-socket. It should be pressed down so it bottoms (plastic on the pins touching the socket). Once fixed, re-run buptest. Repeat until zero errors are reported.

Start the emulator

sudo ./emulator

Expected output (untouched default.cfg in pistorm directory). If the kickstart file (kick.rom) for softkicking is not found it defaults to using the KS on the mainboard.

On my test computer (A500 r6) it falls back to the 3.1.4 ROM:

From here on, you can use the Amiga as any other floppy-only Amiga. I will document the features (kickstart switch, RAM, hard drive, RTG) in another post to keep these at readable length.

Autostart the emulator on system boot – the simple method

In /etc/rc.local, add before the “exit 0” line:

cd /home/pi/pistorm/ && sudo ./emulator&

Autostart the emulator on system boot – advanced method

The CPU-emulator will be started a lot earlier if adding it as a systemd service.
Become root (the ugly way):

sudo su -

Create the file “pistorm.service” in /lib/systemd/system:

[Unit]
Description=Start piStorm 68k emulator
After=local-fs.target

[Service]
ExecStart=/home/pi/start-emulator.sh

[Install]
WantedBy=local-fs.target

Create the file “start-emulator.sh” in /home/pi:

#!/bin/sh
cd /home/pi/pistorm/
sudo ./emulator
exit 0

Make “start-emulator.sh” executable:

chmod 755 /home/pi/start-emulator.sh

Reload/regenerate systemd configuration files:

systemctl daemon-reload

Enable the automatic start of the CPU-emulator:

systemctl enable pistorm.service

Now, in case you need to restart the emulator (and Amiga as well), this can be done without having to find the ’emulator’ process:

systemctl restart pistorm

Other similar guides for the piStorm

Lightning Amiga Performance With PiStorm (LinuxJedi)